Curriculum




English Language Arts, Grade 4, 2015

Reading Standards for Literature
Key Ideas and Details
1.) Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. [RL.4.1]

2.) Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. [RL.4.2]

3.) Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions). [RL.4.3]

Craft and Structure
4.) Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean). [RL.4.4]

5.) Explain major differences among poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text. [RL.4.5]

6.) Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. [RL.4.6]

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7.) Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text. [RL.4.7]

8.) Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures. [RL.4.9]

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
9.) By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the Grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. [RL.4.10]

Reading Standards for Informational Text
Key Ideas and Details
10.) Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. [RI.4.1]

11.) Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. [RI.4.2]

12.) Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. [RI.4.3]

Craft and Structure
13.) Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a Grade 4 topic or subject area. [RI.4.4]

14.) Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause and effect, problem and solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. [RI.4.5]

15.) Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided. [RI.4.6]

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
16.) Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. [RI.4.7]

17.) Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. [RI.4.8]

18.) Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. [RI.4.9]

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
19.) By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the Grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. [RI.4.10]

Reading Standards: Foundational Skills
Phonics and Word Recognition
20.) Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. [RF.4.3]

a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. [RF.4.3a]

Fluency
21.) Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. [RF.4.4]

a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. [RF.4.4a]

b. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. [RF.4.4b]

c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. [RF.4.4c]

Writing Standards
Text Types and Purposes
22.) Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. [W.4.1]

a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer's purpose. [W.4.1a]

b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. [W.4.1b]

c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition). [W.4.1c]

d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. [W.4.1d]

23.) Write informative or explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. [W.4.2]

a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. [W.4.2a]

b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. [W.4.2b]

c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because). [W.4.2c]

d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. [W.4.2d]

e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. [W.4.2e]

24.) Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. [W.4.3]

a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator, characters, or both; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. [W.4.3a]

b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. [W.4.3b]

c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events. [W.4.3c]

d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. [W.4.3d]

e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. [W.4.3e]

Production and Distribution of Writing
25.) Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 22-24 above.) [W.4.4]

26.) With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three Language standards in Grades K-4.) [W.4.5]

27.) With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. [W.4.6]

Research to Build and Present Knowledge
28.) Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. [W.4.7]

29.) Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. [W.4.8]

30.) Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. [W.4.9]

a. Apply Grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions]"). [W.4.9a]

b. Apply Grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text"). [W.4.9b]

Range of Writing
31.) Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. [W.4.10]

Speaking and Listening Standards
Comprehension and Collaboration
32.) Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly. [SL.4.1]

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. [SL.4.1a]

b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. [SL.4.1b]

c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others. [SL.4.1c]

d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. [SL.4.1d]

33.) Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. [SL.4.2]

34.) Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. [SL.4.3]

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
35.) Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace. [SL.4.4]

36.) Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See Grade 4 Language standards 38 and 40 for specific expectations.) [SL.4.6]

37.) Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See Grade 4 Language standards 38 and 40 for specific expectations.) [SL.4.6]

Language Standards

Skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*).
Conventions of Standard English
38.) Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. [L.4.1]

a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why). [L.4.1a]

b. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses. [L.4.1b]

c. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions. [L.4.1c]

d. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag). [L.4.1d]

e. Form and use prepositional phrases. [L.4.1e]

f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.* [L.4.1f]

g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).* [L.4.1g]

39.) Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. [L.4.2]

a. Use correct capitalization. [L.4.2a]

b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text. [L.4.2b]

c. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence. [L.4.2c]

d. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed. [L.4.2d]

Knowledge of Language
40.) Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. [L.4.3]

a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.* [L.4.3a]

b. Choose punctuation for effect.* [L.4.3b]

c. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion). [L.4.3c]

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
41.) Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. [L.4.4]

a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. [L.4.4a]

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph). [L.4.4b]

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. [L.4.4c]

42.) Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. [L.4.5]

a. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context. [L.4.5a]

b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. [L.4.5b]

c. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms). [L.4.5c]

43.) Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). [L.4.6]


Health, Grade 4, 2009

1.) Compare health-related advertisements regarding "truth-in-advertising."

2.) Explain ways industry impacts environmental and community health.

Examples: land, air, noise, or water pollution; disposal of hazardous waste

3.) Identify environmental health issues related to home and work.

Examples: waste disposal, stagnant water, mold

4.) Explain the importance of communication within the family unit.

5.) Identify benefits of adequate sleep, nutrition, and exercise for the body.

Examples: mental alertness, strong immune system, healthy weight

6.) Describe the importance of personal hygiene health habits related to puberty and adolescence.

7.) Describe healthful ways to express emotions.

Examples: journaling, talking to an older sibling or trusted adult

8.) Identify ways to respect personal boundaries of others.

Examples: responding to nonverbal cues, tolerating opinions, recognizing personal space

9.) Utilize information on food labels to determine the nutritional value of various foods.

•  Describing healthy meals and snacks
10.) Explain relationships among nutrition, health, and wellness.

Examples: impact of following national dietary guidelines, long-term effects of eating saturated fats, risks of excessive sugar and caffeine intake

•  Describing how media, culture, and availability influence food choices
•  Identifying safe food-handling practices
Example: following recommended cleaning, cooking, and storing practices

11.) Differentiate between acute and chronic medical conditions.

Examples:

- acute—flu, strep throat

- chronic—asthma, diabetes

12.) Describe physical effects of substance abuse on the body.

Examples: shortness of breath, elevated heart rate, stained teeth, impaired judgment, addiction

13.) Describe risk factors that can lead to substance abuse.

Examples: peer pressure, family history, stress, depression, psychological disorders


Mathematics, Grade 4, 2015

Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.
1.) Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. [4-OA1]

2.) Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison. (See Appendix A, Table 2.) [4-OA2]

3.) Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. [4-OA3]

Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.
4.) Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1-100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is prime or composite. [4-OA4]

Generate and analyze patterns.
5.) Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. [4-OA5]

Example: Given the rule "Add 3" and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence, and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

Number and Operations in Base Ten
(Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.)
Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.
6.) Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. [4-NBT1]

Example: Recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division.

7.) Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. [4-NBT2]

8.) Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place. [4-NBT3]

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.
9.) Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. [4-NBT4]

10.) Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. [4-NBT5]

11.) Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. [4-NBT6]

Number and Operations — Fractions
(Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominations 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)
Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.
12.) Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction nxa/nxb by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. [4-NF1]

13.) Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. [4-NF2]

Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.
14.) Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. [4-NF3]

a. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. [4-NF3a]

b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. [4-NF3b]

Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/83/8 = 1/8 + 2/8; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.

c. Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. [4-NF3c]

d. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. [4-NF3d]

15.) Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. [4-NF4]

a. Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. [4-NF4a]

Example: Use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 x (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 x (1/4).

b. Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. [4-NF4b]

Example: Use a visual fraction model to express 3 x (2/5) as 6 x (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n x (a/b) = (nxa)/b.)

c. Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. [4-NF4c]

Example: If each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed' Between which two whole numbers does your answer lie'

Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.
16.) Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100. (Students who can generate equivalent fractions can develop strategies for adding fractions with unlike denominators in general. But addition and subtraction with unlike denominators in general is not a requirement at this grade.) [4-NF5]

Example: Express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100.

17.) Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. [4-NF6]

Example: Rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram.

18.) Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model. [4-NF7]

Measurement and Data
Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.
19.) Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units, including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz; l, ml; and hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. [4-MD1]

Examples: Know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ...

20.) Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. [4-MD2]

21.) Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real-world and mathematical problems. [4-MD3]

Example: Find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

Represent and interpret data.
22.) Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/21/41/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. [4-MD4]

Example: From a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.

Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.
23.) Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement. [4-MD5]

a. An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a "one-degree angle" and can be used to measure angles. [4-MD5a]

b. An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees. [4-MD5b]

24.) Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure. [4-MD6]

25.) Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into nonoverlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real-world or mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure. [4-MD7]

Geometry
Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.
26.) Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures. [4-G1]

27.) Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. [4-G2]

28.) Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry. [4-G3]


Science, Grade 4, 2015

Energy
1.) Use evidence to explain the relationship of the speed of an object to the energy of that object.

2.) Plan and carry out investigations that explain transference of energy from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

a. Provide evidence that heat can be produced in many ways (e.g., rubbing hands together, burning leaves) and can move from one object to another by conduction.

b. Demonstrate that different objects can absorb, reflect, and/or conduct energy.

c. Demonstrate that electric circuits require a complete loop through which an electric current can pass.

3.) Investigate to determine changes in energy resulting from increases or decreases in speed that occur when objects collide.

4.) Design, construct, and test a device that changes energy from one form to another (e.g., electric circuits converting electrical energy into motion, light, or sound energy; a passive solar heater converting light energy into heat energy).*

5.) Compile information to describe how the use of energy derived from natural renewable and nonrenewable resources affects the environment (e.g., constructing dams to harness energy from water, a renewable resource, while causing a loss of animal habitats; burning of fossil fuels, a nonrenewable resource, while causing an increase in air pollution; installing solar panels to harness energy from the sun, a renewable resource, while requiring specialized materials that necessitate mining).

Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
6.) Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength, and including that waves can cause objects to move.

7.) Develop and use models to show multiple solutions in which patterns are used to transfer information (e.g., using a grid of 1s and 0s representing black and white to send information about a picture, using drums to send coded information through sound waves, using Morse code to send a message).*

8.) Construct a model to explain that an object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.

From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
9.) Examine evidence to support an argument that the internal and external structures of plants (e.g., thorns, leaves, stems, roots, colored petals, xylem, phloem) and animals (e.g., heart, stomach, lung, brain, skin) function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.

10.) Obtain and communicate information explaining that humans have systems that interact with one another for digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, movement, control, coordination, and protection from disease.

11.) Investigate different ways animals receive information through the senses, process that information, and respond to it in different ways (e.g., skunks lifting tails and spraying an odor when threatened, dogs moving ears when reacting to sound, snakes coiling or striking when sensing vibrations).

Earth's Systems
12.) Construct explanations by citing evidence found in patterns of rock formations and fossils in rock layers that Earth changes over time through both slow and rapid processes (e.g., rock layers containing shell fossils appearing above rock layers containing plant fossils and no shells indicating a change from land to water over time, a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom indicating that over time a river cut through the rock).

13.) Plan and carry out investigations to examine properties of soils and soil types (e.g., color, texture, capacity to retain water, ability to support growth of plants).

14.) Explore information to support the claim that landforms are the result of a combination of constructive forces, including crustal deformation, volcanic eruptions, and sediment deposition as well as a result of destructive forces, including erosion and weathering.

15.) Analyze and interpret data (e.g., angle of slope in downhill movement of water, volume of water flow, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling of water, speed of wind, relative rate of soil deposition, amount of vegetation) to determine effects of weathering and rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, and vegetation using one single form of weathering or erosion at a time.

16.) Describe patterns of Earth's features on land and in the ocean using data from maps (e.g., topographic maps of Earth's land and ocean floor; maps of locations of mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes).

17.) Formulate and evaluate solutions to limit the effects of natural Earth processes on humans (e.g., designing earthquake, tornado, or hurricane-resistant buildings; improving monitoring of volcanic activity).*


Social Studies, Grade 4, Alabama Studies, 2010

1.) Compare historical and current economic, political, and geographic information about Alabama on thematic maps, including weather and climate, physical-relief, waterway, transportation, political, economic development, land-use, and population maps.

•  Describing types of migrations as they affect the environment, agriculture, economic development, and population changes in Alabama
2.) Relate reasons for European exploration and settlement in Alabama to the impact of European explorers on trade, health, and land expansion in Alabama.

•  Locating on maps European settlements in early Alabama, including Fort Condé, Fort Toulouse, and Fort Mims
•  Tracing on maps and globes, the routes of early explorers of the New World, including Juan Ponce de León, Hernando de Soto, and Vasco Núñez de Balboa
•  Explaining reasons for conflicts between Europeans and American Indians in Alabama from 1519 to 1840, including differing beliefs regarding land ownership, religion, and culture
3.) Explain the social, political, and economic impact of the War of 1812, including battles and significant leaders of the Creek War, on Alabama.

Examples: social—adoption of European culture by American Indians, opening of Alabama land for settlement

political—forced relocation of American Indians, labeling of Andrew Jackson as a hero and propelling him toward Presidency

economic—acquisition of tribal land in Alabama by the United States

•  Explaining the impact of the Trail of Tears on Alabama American Indians' lives, rights, and territories
4.) Relate the relationship of the five geographic regions of Alabama to the movement of Alabama settlers during the early nineteenth century.

•  Identifying natural resources of Alabama during the early nineteenth century
•  Describing human environments of Alabama as they relate to settlement during the early nineteenth century, including housing, roads, and place names
5.) Describe Alabama's entry into statehood and establishment of its three branches of government and the constitutions.

•  Explaining political and geographic reasons for changes in location of Alabama's state capital
•  Recognizing roles of prominent political leaders during early statehood in Alabama, including William Wyatt Bibb, Thomas Bibb, Israel Pickens, William Rufus King, and John W. Walker
6.) Describe cultural, economic, and political aspects of the lifestyles of early nineteenth-century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.

Examples: cultural—housing, education, religion, recreation

economic—transportation, means of support

political—inequity of legal codes

•  Describing major areas of agricultural production in Alabama, including the Black Belt and fertile river valleys
7.) Explain reasons for Alabama's secession from the Union, including sectionalism, slavery, states' rights, and economic disagreements.

•  Identifying Alabama's role in the organization of the Confederacy, including hosting the secession convention and the inauguration ceremony for leaders
•  Recognizing Montgomery as the first capital of the Confederacy
•  Interpreting the Articles of the Confederation and the Gettysburg Address
8.) Explain Alabama's economic and military role during the Civil War.

Examples: economic—production of iron products, munitions, textiles, and ships

military—provision of military supplies through the Port of Mobile, provision of an armament center at Selma

•  Recognizing military leaders from Alabama during the Civil War
•  Comparing roles of women on the home front and the battlefront during and after the Civil War
•  Explaining economic conditions as a result of the Civil War, including the collapse of the economic structure, destruction of the transportation infrastructure, and high casualty rates
9.) Analyze political and economic issues facing Alabama during Reconstruction for their impact on various social groups.

Examples: political—military rule, presence of Freedmen's Bureau, Alabama's readmittance to the Union

economic—sharecropping, tenant farming, scarcity of goods and money

•  Interpreting the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States
•  Identifying African Americans who had an impact on Alabama during Reconstruction in Alabama
•  Identifying major political parties in Alabama during Reconstruction
10.) Analyze social and educational changes during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries for their impact on Alabama.

Examples: social—implementation of the Plessey versus Ferguson "separate but not equal" court decision, birth of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

educational—establishment of normal schools and land-grant colleges such as Huntsville Normal School (Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical [A&M] University), Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama (Auburn University), Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (Tuskegee University), Lincoln Normal School (Alabama State University)

•  Explaining the development and changing role of industry, trade, and agriculture in Alabama during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including the rise of Populism
•  Explaining the Jim Crow laws
•  Identifying Alabamians who made contributions in the fields of science, education, the arts, politics, and business during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
11.) Describe the impact of World War I on Alabamians, including the migration of African Americans from Alabama to the North and West, utilization of Alabama's military installations and training facilities, and increased production of goods for the war effort.

•  Recognizing Alabama participants in World War I, including Alabama's 167th Regiment of the Rainbow Division
•  Identifying World War I technologies, including airplanes, machine guns, and chemical warfare
12.) Explain the impact the 1920s and Great Depression had on different socioeconomic groups in Alabama.

Examples: 1920s—increase in availability of electricity, employment opportunities, wages, products, consumption of goods and services; overproduction of goods; stock market crash

Great Depression—overcropping of land, unemployment, poverty, establishment of new federal programs

•  Explaining how supply and demand impacted economies of Alabama and the United States during the 1920s and the Great Depression
13.) Describe the economic and social impact of World War II on Alabamians, including entry of women into the workforce, increase in job opportunities, rationing, utilization of Alabama's military installations, military recruitment, the draft, and a rise in racial consciousness.

•  Recognizing Alabama participants in World War II, including the Tuskegee Airmen and women in the military
•  Justifying the strategic placement of military bases in Alabama, including Redstone Arsenal, Fort Rucker, Fort McClellan, and Craig Air Force Base
14.) Analyze the modern Civil Rights Movement to determine the social, political, and economic impact on Alabama.

•  Recognizing important persons of the modern Civil Rights Movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr.; George C. Wallace; Rosa Parks; Fred Shuttlesworth; John Lewis; Malcolm X; Thurgood Marshall; Hugo Black; and Ralph David Abernathy
•  Describing events of the modern Civil Rights Movement, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, the Freedom Riders bus bombing, and the Selma-to-Montgomery March
•  Explaining benefits of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and Brown versus Board of Education Supreme Court case of 1954
•  Using vocabulary associated with the modern Civil Rights Movement, including discrimination, prejudice, segregation, integration, suffrage, and rights
15.) Identify major world events that influenced Alabama since 1950, including the Korean Conflict, the Cold War, the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, and the War on Terrorism.

16.) Determine the impact of population growth on cities, major road systems, demographics, natural resources, and the natural environment of Alabama during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

•  Describing how technological advancements brought change to Alabamians, including the telephone; refrigerator; automobile; television; and wireless, Internet, and space technologies
•  Relating Alabama's economy to the influence of foreign-based industry, including the automobile industr

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